The Greenhaven Encyclopedias Of - Ancient Egypt

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Research in Context. Bleiberg, vol. Gale, , pp. Accessed 31 Jan. False door "Architecture: Private Tombs. Accessed 13 Feb. Accessed 27 Feb. Banquets Database article "Banquets. World Book, Kids InfoBits. British Museum.

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Detroit: UXL, Egyptian Mythology A well known source for all mythology. Copyright dates are on the bottom of the articles. Judson Knight and Stacy A. Siteseen, Lincoln Lib.

P, Hieroglyphics Hieroglyphics "Hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics Database article "Hieroglyphics. Egyptian Hieroglyphics.

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Forms of Writing Database article "Writing, Forms of. Sara Pendergast, et al. Jewelry and Amulets Database article "Jewelry and Amulets. Amulets and Charms Database article "Amulets and Charms. Sasson, vol. World History in Context , libraries. Accessed 15 Feb. Egyptian Amulets Patch, Diana Craig. Davis, Graeme. Marshall Cavendish Digital, Ancient Egyptian Afterlife website Donn, Don.

Egyptian Afterlife database article "The Egyptian Afterlife.

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Look at the bottom of the page for the citation a rare find in a website! Mummies "Mummies. Pharaohs Database article "Pharaohs. The King Database article database article "The King. Egypt Database article Read the section Gods, pharaohs, and the afterlife "Egypt. Pyramids Pyramid "Pyramids. Another dramatic feature of this temple is that twice each year, on approximately April 22 and October 22 one month after the spring and autumnal equinox, respectively , a shaft of light from the rising sun passes through the temple entrance, down a corridor, past eight floor-to-ceiling pillars, and into a niche at the far end of the sanctuary, a distance of roughly feet back into the rock.

In addition to the sanctuary are numerous small chambers that were probably used as storerooms, as well as a number of large halls. These rooms feature wall reliefs depicting the king s military campaigns in Palestine to the east of Egypt , Libya to the west , Syria to the north , and Nubia to the south. Since the king campaigned elsewhere as well, archaeologists generally believe that these locations were chosen to symbolize the extent of the king s power.

Other reliefs depict the king engaged in various ceremonies, including ones that suggest he was actually deified during his lifetime rather than after death. One aspect of the temple proved helpful to archaeologists in learning how to read hieroglyphs, the form of writing used by ancient Egyptians.

Champollion s hunch proved correct: The sounds that the pictures suggested composed Ramses II s throne name, Usermaatre. Champollion s work paved the way for deciphering many other previously unreadable inscriptions.

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The second, or lesser, temple at Abu Simbel is a smaller version of the first. Archaeologists sometimes refer to it as the Temple of Nefertari because it is dedicated to Ramses II s chief wife Queen Nefertari and the goddess Hathor.

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Inside this temple is a niche containing a statue of the goddess Hathor, as well as wall reliefs showing the queen participating in ceremonies alongside her husband. An underground portion of the temple contained numerous chambers for conducting rituals to honor Hathor, a hall, and vestibules. King Ramses II s Abu Simbel temples were first discovered by archaeologist Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in Four years later, archaeologist Giovanni Battista Belzoni had excavated enough of the larger temple to allow scholars to enter the structure.

For many years thereafter, the temples at Abu Simbel were a major tourist attraction. However, they are no longer at their original site, which is now under the waters of Lake Nasser a reservoir created by the building of the Aswan High Dam. Between and , both temples were painstakingly dismantled and moved to higher ground approximately yards away. Both the exteriors and the interiors of the two temples were.

Abusir Abusir was one of a string of cemeteries serving the city of Memphis. As such, it contains numerous tomb complexes, monuments, and temples. In fact, Abusir contains the earliest solar temple in Egypt, an unfinished pyramid begun by the Fifth Dynasty king Userkaf. The pyramids of other Fifth Dynasty rulers were built at Abusir as well. Still surviving, although ravaged by time, are those of Kings Sahure, Kakai, and Neuserre also known as Izi , as well as the pyramid of Queen Khentkawes I, the unfinished pyramids of King Neferirkare and Reneferef and King Shepseskhaf and other structures.

The most elaborate pyramid appears to have been that of King Sahure.

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Constructed of red granite from Aswan as well as both local limestone and limestone from the quarries at Tura, across the Nile River from Abusir, the pyramid featured black basalt flooring and a copper drainpipe over three hundred yards long. Some of the pyramid s limestone blocks weighed as much as tons, the largest being byby feet in size. However, all but two of these blocks have been destroyed, probably as a result of an earthquake that shook the area in antiquity. Artwork found at Abusir has yielded important information about life during the Fifth Dynasty.

For example, on the inner walls of a causeway that once connected Sahure s pyramid with other royal tombs and pyramids, reliefs depicted a variety of Fifth Dynasty scenes, including people dancing, wrestling, and shooting bows and arrows as part of military training. Reliefs and paintings inside the temple show the king engaged in such activities as hunting and include the earliest depiction of Egyptian ships meant for ocean voyages as opposed to Nile River travel.

Other Abusir temples, including the pyramid complex of King Neuserre and the pyramid of Queen Khentkawes I, have yielded ancient papyrus columns and scrolls, providing archaeologists with descriptions related to the day-today management of Old Kingdom pyramid complexes.