Data Model Scorecard: Applying the Industry Standard on Data Model Quality
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Learn More - opens in a new window or tab International shipping and import charges paid to Pitney Bowes Inc. Learn More - opens in a new window or tab Any international shipping and import charges are paid in part to Pitney Bowes Inc. Learn More - opens in a new window or tab Any international shipping is paid in part to Pitney Bowes Inc. Learn More - opens in a new window or tab. Related sponsored items Feedback on our suggestions - Related sponsored items. Applying Law by Bradley J. The idea was that managers used these perspective headings to prompt the selection of a small number of measures that informed on that aspect of the organisation's strategic performance.
These categories were not so relevant to public sector or non-profit organisations,  or units within complex organizations which might have high degrees of internal specialization , and much of the early literature on balanced scorecard focused on suggestions of alternative 'perspectives' that might have more relevance to these groups e. These suggestions were notably triggered by a recognition that different but equivalent headings would yield alternative sets of measures, and this represents the major design challenge faced with this type of balanced scorecard design: justifying the choice of measures made.
Although less common, these early-style balanced scorecards are still designed and used today. In short, first generation balanced scorecards are hard to design in a way that builds confidence that they are well designed. Because of this, many are abandoned soon after completion. In the mids, an improved design method emerged. With this modified approach, the strategic objectives are distributed across the four measurement perspectives, so as to "connect the dots" to form a visual presentation of strategy and measures.
In this modified version of balanced scorecard design, managers select a few strategic objectives within each of the perspectives, and then define the cause-effect chain among these objectives by drawing links between them to create a "strategic linkage model". A balanced scorecard of strategic performance measures is then derived directly by selecting one or two measures for each strategic objective. This style of balanced scorecard has been commonly used since or so: it is significantly different in approach to the methods originally proposed, and so can be thought of as representing the "2nd generation" of design approach adopted for the balanced scorecard since its introduction.
In the late s, the design approach had evolved yet again. One problem with the "second generation" design approach described above was that the plotting of causal links amongst twenty or so medium-term strategic goals was still a relatively abstract activity. In practice it ignored the fact that opportunities to intervene, to influence strategic goals are, and need to be, anchored in current and real management activity.
Secondly, the need to "roll forward" and test the impact of these goals necessitated the creation of an additional design instrument: the Vision or Destination Statement. This device was a statement of what "strategic success", or the "strategic end-state", looked like. It was quickly realized that if a Destination Statement was created at the beginning of the design process, then it was easier to select strategic activity and outcome objectives to respond to it.
Measures and targets could then be selected to track the achievement of these objectives. Design methods that incorporate a Destination Statement or equivalent e. Design methods for balanced scorecards continue to evolve and adapt to reflect the deficiencies in the currently used methods, and the particular needs of communities of interest e. NGO's and government departments have found the third generation methods embedded in results-based management more useful than first or second generation design methods.
This generation refined the second generation of balanced scorecards to give more relevance and functionality to strategic objectives. The major difference is the incorporation of Destination Statements.
Data Model Scorecard - Applying the Industry Standard on Data Model Quality (Paperback)
Other key components are strategic objectives, strategic linkage model and perspectives, measures and initiatives. In , Kurtzman  found that 64 percent of the companies questioned were measuring performance from a number of perspectives in a similar way to the balanced scorecard. Balanced scorecards have been implemented by government agencies, military units, business units and corporations as a whole, non-profit organizations, and schools. Balanced scorecard has been widely adopted, and consistently has been found to be the most popular performance management framework in a widely respected annual survey e.
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Theorists have argued from the earliest days of discussion of Balanced Scorecard usage that much of the benefit of the balanced scorecard comes from the design process itself. Academic criticism of the balanced scorecard can be broken into three distinct but overlapping areas of concern. In response to these concerns there have been many studies seeking to provide retrospective academic underpinnings for the Balanced Scorecard concept,    and to provide case study and validation information for the various design generations.
Broadcast surveys of usage have difficulties in this respect, due to the wide variations in definition of 'what a balanced scorecard is' making it hard to work out in a survey if you are comparing like with like. However, such studies as have been done have typically found balanced scorecard to be useful. Consideration has been given to the effect of organisation size on Balanced Scorecard effectiveness:. It is important to recognize that the balanced scorecard by definition is not a complex thing — typically no more than about 20 measures spread across a mix of financial and non-financial topics, and easily reported manually on paper, or using simple office software.
The processes of collecting, reporting, and distributing balanced scorecard information can be labor-intensive and prone to procedural problems for example, getting all relevant people to return the information required by the required date. The simplest mechanism to use is to delegate these activities to an individual, and many Balanced Scorecards are reported via ad-hoc methods based around email, phone calls and office software. Where these conditions apply, organizations use balanced scorecard reporting software to automate the production and distribution of these reports.
Recent surveys have consistently found that roughly one third of organizations use generic office software to report their balanced scorecard, one third used software developed specifically for their own use, and one third used one of the many commercial packages available. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Strategy Major dimensions. Major thinkers. Frameworks and tools. Main article: Third-generation balanced scorecard.
Retrieved 11 July However, Industry 4. In essence this means that in Industry 4. That is pretty unique. So, just like digital transformation, Industry 4.
Industry the fourth industrial revolution - guide to Industrie
Yet, as opposed to digital transformation this vision and reality is far more studied, documented and standardized despite the mentioned need to work in the context of the individual business as well. In the Industry 4. One such maturity approach looks at the information and actual operations and manufacturing systems perspective with autonomous machines and systems as true Industry 4.
In this gradual approach, whereby each stage builds upon the next one and adds more value, we move from data to information to knowledge to wisdom and action from a data perspective. Indeed, the good old DIKW model.
A second maturity approach revolves more around the business as such and corresponds with what you would typically see in any project. What do we want to achieve and what do we have today assess , where do we want to go and what are the missing links to get there called the methodological analysis in Industrie 4. Cyber-physical systems CPS are building blocks in Industry 4. Cyber-physical systems are combinations of intelligent physical components, objects and systems with embedded computing and storage possibilities, which get connected through networks and are the enablers of the smart factory concept of Industry 4.
Simply put, as the term indicates, cyber-physical systems refers to the bridging of digital cyber and physical in an industrial context. This might still seem complex but, then again, cyber-physical systems are complex. So, if you want to understand Industry 4.